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La polarité entre Bauern et Contadini

20 novembre 2017
Frontières et cultures de la paysannerie

Une polarité historique et anthropologique entre paysans et citadins sur un même sol, à savoir, la Frontière cachée séparant les villages de St. Felix (germanophone) et de Tret (italophone) dans une vallée alpine du Haut Adige.

“These two villages, different in ethnic identity and often at loggerheads in politics, live side by side and share very similar modes of adaptation to a common mountainous environment. We are interested in the commonalities that unite them and in the social, cultural, and political oppositions that divide them.”

Eric R. Wolf, Pathways of Power.
Building an Anthropology of the Modern World
,
Berkeley, University of California Press, 2001.
Au chapitre 21 (Peasant Nationalism in an Alpine Valley),
pp. 289–303.

L'article intitulé Peasant Nationalism in an Alpine Valley, qui fixe le cadre historique et retrace la construction symbolique d'un nationalisme paysan en Haut Adige, se fonde sur une étude d'ethnohistoire publiée en 1974, qui fit date et qui combinait les méthodes de l'enquête anthropologique de terrain avec les perspectives de l'histoire et de l'économie politique, the methods of anthropological field work with the perspectives of history and political economy (dans les Ackowledgements). Si vous choisissez de commenter cet article dans votre travail écrit, il va de soi que ce doit être à la lumière d'une lecture de The Hidden Frontier, disponible en deux formats, PdF et ePub.

Dans la Bibliothèque Tessitures:
Anthropologues 1930s–1980s > Wolf (Eric)

John W. Cole and Eric R. Wolf, The Hidden Frontier. Ecology and Ethnicity in an Alpine Valley [1974], With a New Introduction, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1999.

Pour gloser le sous-titre en deux mots: entre le village germanophile de St. Felix et le village italophile de Tret, l'ethnographie révèle la contractiction entre une écologie commune et deux ethnicités divergentes, que l'histoire explique.

contraste

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Les citations ci-dessous sont extraites de The Hidden Frontier. Comme les versions numériques dont nous disposons ne sont pas paginées, vous devrez utiliser la fonction Recherche de iBooks, Adobe Reader ou autres logiciels de lecture pour retrouver les passages cités à partir de leurs mots clés.

The two villages lie next to each other, but they are separated by provincial boundaries: German-speaking St. Felix today forms part of the Italian Province of Bozen or Bolzano, officially designated as Alto Adige or Tiroler Etschland; Romance-speaking Tret, its neighbor, belongs to the Province of Trento or Trentino. Both provinces formed, before World War I, an integral part of the Austrian Land of the Tyrol, and were thus component parts of the large Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Province Bozen then [au tournant du 20e siècle] had a population of 285,000, of whom fewer than 10,000 spoke Ladinsh, a Rhateo-Romansh language, and another group of fewer than 10,000 members spoke Italian; the rest were German speakers [= 200.000]. Province Trento, in comparison, counted 387,000 inhabitants; most of them spoke Italian. Ladinsh speakers and German speakers there numbered fewer than 14,000.

La carte ci-dessous est placée en frontispice au début du livre.

adige


Le contraste entre les Tyrolese germanophiles de St. Felix et les Nones italophiles de Tret est résumé dans un tableau à deux colonnes dans le chapitre 21 de Pathways of Power, p.301:


St. Felix

armed colonizers
"peasants", Bauern
self-governing cultivator
armed militiaman
head of an undivided homestead
unitary authority within the domestic group
preference for "structure"
"order"
Counts of Tyrol, Hapsburgs
chosen people under God
German

Tret

defeated first settlers
townsmen, Contadini
rural dweller dependent on town government
weaponless rural villager
cultivator weakened by parcelization of the homestead
distributed authority within the domestic group
preference for flexible alliances
"disorder"
government by illegitimate and impersonal bureaucracy
godless, atheists
Italian


The contrast between the dependence of the Italian rural settlement on an urban center and the autonomy of the Tyrolese rural settlement is illustrated still further in St. Felix and Tret in ecclesiastical matters: St. Felix has its own priest to whom the community assigns a residence and farm lands for subsistence (Widum), rendering him comparable in the operation of a holding to other owners of homesteads. It also possesses a plethora of religious associations (see Chapter XI). In contrast, the priest serving Tret lives in Fondo and alternates his services to the frazione with attendance at mass in nearby Dovena.

The political and ecclesiastical contrasts have larger social implications as well. The Italian, and thus Trentine, cultivator, the contadino, belongs to a contado, the rural orbit of a city. It is the city that is regarded as the seat of civilization and urbanity; the contadino is defined not merely as a second-rate citizen in a polity where urban dwellers take precedence, but also as an individual lower on the social scale, lacking in the civilized graces. The Tyrolese peasant, on the other hand, the Bauer, is not merely the owner of a homestead, but as such, holds political rights in his community and in a politically defined peasant estate within the Tyrolese assembly.