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Histoire et courants de
l'anthropologie sociale et culturelle
(1870s-1970s)

Ecologies culturelles
et anthropologie de la nature

Laurent Berger


“Cultural ecology is broadly similar to biological ecology in its method of examining the interactions of all social and natural phenomena within an area, but it does not equate social features with biological species or assume that competition is the major process. It distinguishes different kinds of sociocultural systems and institutions, it recognizes both cooperation and competition as processes of interaction, and it postulates that environmental adaptations depend on the technology, needs, and structure of the society and on the nature of the environment. It includes analysis of adaptations to the social environment, because an independent tribe is influenced in its environmental adaptations by such interactions with its neighbors as peaceful trading, intermarriage, cooperation, and warfare and other kinds of competition, in the same way a specialized, dependent segment of a larger sociocultural system may be strongly influenced by external institutions in the way it utilizes its environment.”

“The historical processes by which a society acquires many of its basic traits are complementary to studies of adaptive processes. The historical processes include the extensive borrowing of many cultural traits and trait complexes from diverse sources; the migrations of people; the transmission of cultural heritages to successive generations; and local innovations or inventions. Recognition of these historical processes, however, does not relegate environment to the circumscribed role of merely permitting or prohibiting certain cultural practices so that all origins must be explained by such history. It is obvious that fishing will have minor importance in desert areas and that agriculture is impossible in arctic regions. It is equally clear that abundant fishing resources cannot be exploited without appropriate techniques and that agricultural potentials cannot be utilized without domesticated plants.”

Julian H. Steward, Cultural Ecology (1968).



Lectures pour validation (écologies culturelles)

Remise d’un mini-mémoire d’une quinzaine de pages exclusivement alimenté par les ouvrages suivants.

Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology, New York, Ballantine Books, 1972.

Robert L. Carneiro, A Theory of the Origin of the State, Science 169 (1970): 733–738.

Julian H. Steward, Theory of Culture Change: the Methodology of Multilinear Evolution, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1955.

Roy A. Rappaport, Pigs for the Ancestors. Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People, New Heaven, Yale University Press, [1968] 1984.

Marvin Harris, Cultural Materialism: The Struggle for a Science of Culture, New York, Random House, 1979.

Andrew P. Vayda, War in Ecological Perspective: Persistence, Change, and Adaptive Processes in Three Oceanian Societies, 1976; reprint New York, Springer, 2012.




Références complémentaires aux travaux de ces auteurs


Gregory Bateson (1904–1980)

Bibliothèque Tessitures
Anthropologues 1930s–1980s > Bateson (Gregory)

Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology, New York, Ballantine Books, 1972. Reprint Northvale NJ and London, Jason Aronson Inc., 1987.


Marvin Harris (1927–2001)

Bibliothèque Tessitures
Anthropologues 1930s–1980s > Harris (Marvin)

Marvin Harris, Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches: The Riddles of Culture. New York, Random House, 1974.

Marvin Harris, Cultural Materialism: The Struggle for a Science of Culture. New York, Random House, 1979.


Ecologies culturelles

Bibliothèque Tessitures. Chemin d'accès:
> HISTOIRE ET COURANTS DE L'ANTHROPOLOGIE (M1)
> Ecologies culturelles

[Julian H. Steward, Theory of Culture Change: the Methodology of Multilinear Evolution, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1955.]

Julian H. Steward, Cultural Ecology, in David L. Sills, Ed., International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Volume 4, New York, Macmillan & Free Press, 1968, pp.337–344.

Roy A. Rappaport, Pigs for the Ancestors. Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People, Yale University Press, [1968] 1984. (Non indexable.)

Robert L. Carneiro, A Theory of the Origin of the State, Science 169 (1970): 733–738.

Claude Lévi-Strauss, Structuralism and ecology, Social Science Information [International Social Science Council] 12.1 (1973): 7-23. Gildersleeve Lecture delivered at Barnard College, New York, March 28, 1972.

Marvin Harris, Lévi-Strauss et la palourde: Réponse à la Conférence Gildersleeve de 1972, L'Homme, tome 16, n°2–33 (1976), pp.5–22.

Andrew P. Vayda, War in Ecological Perspective: Persistence, Change, and Adaptive Processes in Three Oceanian Societies, 1976; reprint New York, Springer, 2012.

Michael Harner, The Ecological Basis for Aztec Sacrifice, American Ethnologist, Vol.4, No.1, Human Ecology (Feb., 1977), pp.117–135.

Roy A. Rappaport, Ecology, Meaning, and Religion. Berkekey, North Atlantic Books, 1979.

Benjamin S. Orlove, Ecological anthropology, Annual Review of Anthropology 9 (1980): 235–73.

[Robert L. Carneiro, The ecological basis of Amazonian chiefdoms. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1986.]

Robert A. Manners, Julian Haynes Steward 1902–1972. A Biographical Memoir, Washington DC, National Academy of Sciences, 1996.

Andrew P. Vayda, Explaining Human Actions and Environmental Changes, Lanham MD, Altamira Press, 2009.


Anthropologie de la nature

Berque, Augustin. 1990. Médiance. De milieux en paysages. Montpellier, RECLUS, Géographiques.
Brunois, Florence 2007. Le jardin du casoar, la forêt des Kasua. Savoir-être et savoir-faire écologiques. Paris, CNRS Editions & Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, Chemins de l'ethnologie.
Descola, Philippe. 1986. La nature domestique. Symbolisme et praxis dans l'écologie des Achuar. Paris, Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme.
Descola, Philippe. 2005. Par-delà nature et culture. Paris, Gallimard, Bibliothèque des sciences humaines.
Descola, Philippe, & Gísli Pálsson, ed. 1996. Nature and Society. Anthropological perspectives. London, Routledge.
Ellen, Roy F., & Katsuyoshi Fukui, ed. 1996. Redefinig Nature. Ecology, Culture and Domestication. Oxford, Berg.
Geertz, Clifford. 1963. Agricultural Involution: The Process of Ecological Change in Indonesia. Berkeley & Los Angeles, University of California Press.
Geertz, Clifford 1972. "The Wet and the Dry: Traditional Irrigation in Bali and Marocco", Human Ecology 1 (1).
Guille-Escuret, Georges. 1989. Les sociétés et leurs natures. Paris, Armand Colin.
Ingold, Tim 2000. The Perception of the Environment. Essays in Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill. London & New York, Routledge.
Kohn, Eduardo. 2013. How Forests Think: toward an anthropology beyond the human. Berkeley, Los Angeles & London, University of California Press.
Latour, Bruno. 1991. Nous n'avons jamais été modernes. Essai d'anthropologie symétrique. Paris, La Découverte.
Latour, Bruno 1999. Politiques de la nature. Comment faire entrer les sciences en démocratie. Paris, La Découverte.
Teich, Mikulas , Roy Porter, & Bo Gustafsson, ed. 1997. Nature and Society in Historical Context. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Viveiros de Castro, Eduardo. 1996. Os pronomes cosmológicos e o perspectivismo ameríndio, Mana 2 (2): 115–144.
Zimmermann, Francis. 1982. La jungle et le fumet des viandes. Un thème écologique dans la médecine hindoue, Paris, Gallimard - Le Seuil.